These pathologies are usually self perpetuating since areas of irritated painful muscle cause spasm and reduced delivery of healing factors to the irritated area.
When osteopathic manipulation is insufficient to produce significant relief, trigger point injections offer a safe and effective method of treating pain at its source without having to ingest oral medicines that may cause untoward side effects. Trigger point injections are injections of anesthetic (such as lidocaine/novocaine) into the center of the irritated muscle group which allows the nerves to become numbed and the muscle to relax. This eliminates the pain associated with muscle spasm, and allows circulation of the damaged area and promotion of healing. Trigger point injections can be useful in the treatment of acute and chronic neck and back pain, tension and migraine headache, sciatic pain, as well as other large muscle and joint pains.
When allergy to anesthetic may be a concern, dry needling is a viable option. Dry needling works at the sites of chronically injured, fibrotic tissue by increasing the delivery of blood, and by breakup of fascial adhesions that limit adequate range of motion. When used in conjunction with physiotherapy exercises it can be an effective means of promoting healing in damaged muscle.